important leaders in the first punic war

This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances. [59] A quinquereme carried a crew of 300: 280 oarsmen and 20 deck crew and officers. [143][144], By 248 BC the Carthaginians held only two cities on Sicily: Lilybaeum and Drepana; these were well-fortified and situated on the west coast, where they could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. Some Romans panicked and fled inland and the consul himself was taken prisoner. The First Punic War Concludes With both sides balanced, the war between Rome and Carthage continued for 20 more years until the war-weary Phoenicians just gave up in 241. Traditionally the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 2] and 300 cavalry. [150] Evidence of Carthage's financial situation includes their request for a 2,000 talent loan[note 10] from Ptolemaic Egypt, which was refused. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/First-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - First Punic War. d230. 3,200 talents was approximately 82,000 kilograms (81 long tons) of silver. He was helped by a council of advisors called the Senate. In 260 a Roman fleet failed to gain complete control of Sicily but opened the way to Corsica, from which the Carthaginians were expelled. There were three major parts of the Punic wars and they were fought over the course of more than 100 years, First Punic War (264 - 241 BC): The First Punic War was fought largely over the island of Sicily. The Carthaginian fleet was commanded by Hannibal Gisco, the general who had commanded the garrison of Akragas, and was based at Panormus, some 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Lipara. Many theories pertaining to political and military strategy were conceived and codified during these three wars. CHAPTER XIV THE FIRST PUNIC WAR (B.C. According to the most common Roman creation myth, who assisted Rome's first ruler, Romulus, with the rule of the city? Battle of Cannae 216 BC. The Carthaginians withdrew, again being faster than the Romans and so able to make off without further loss. Hasdrubal boldly advanced most of his army, including the elephants, towards the city walls. A Carthaginian base on Corsica was seized, but an attack on Sardinia was repulsed; the base on Corsica was then lost. Metallus had opportunistically moved a large force to the Carthaginian's left flank, and they charged into their disordered opponents. The Punic Wars were important because they led to the demise of the Carthaginian Empire and the rise of the Roman Empire. [8] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants in the events he wrote about. In the case of ancient Rome and Carthage, both nations wanted control over Sicily, an island in the Mediterranean between the two of them. [2][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. The two fleets met off the coast of Mylae in the Battle of Mylae. Over the following 20 years this was to become a semi-autonomous Barcid fiefdom and the source of much of the silver used to pay the large indemnity owed to Rome. [50][51] Both Spain and Gaul provided experienced infantry; unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted. [100], Their naval victories at Mylae and Sulci, and their frustration at the stalemate in Sicily, led the Romans to adopt a sea-based strategy and to develop a plan to invade the Carthaginian heartland in North Africa and threaten Carthage (close to Tunis). [45] This would allow them to recruit and pay an army that would operate in the open against the Romans, while their strongly fortified cities could be supplied by sea and provide a defensive base from which to operate. The invasion initially went well and in 255 BC the Carthaginians sued for peace; the proposed terms were so harsh they fought on, defeating the invaders. There were many leaders of Rome in the first punic war. All of the Roman ships were captured, most with little damage. Mamertine mercenaries controlled Messana, so when Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, attacked the Mamertines, the Mamertines asked the Phoenicians for help. Rome fought three wars against the great North African city of Carthage. They made repeated attempts to block the harbour entrance with a heavy timber boom, but due to the prevailing sea conditions they were unsuccessful. Carthaginian garrisons Romans had occupied most of them were admirals because most of the fought. 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